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Book 111: West Papua = Western New Guinea = Papua (English): Last Wild Place (Rosemary I. PATTERSON)

 

Carmen Young tries to still her galloping thoughts and surging emotions as she and her exciting new boyfriend neck passionately in the back seat of the Boeing 737 that is about to land in a part of the world she had never expected to visit yet [sic] alone move to accept a job. Jayapura, West Papua had not been in the vision plan she had imagined nor had the exceedingly handsome, young Dutch/Indonesian descendant in the seat next to her.

 

As I said in the post on Xinjiang, people of the same culture can find themselves with totally different experiences of freedom and history depending on which side of an arbitrary colonial border they find themselves on (and you only have to glance at the ruler-straight border down the centre of New Guinea – except where it is briefly displaced by the Fly River – to know that it is arbitrary). For a quick history of this Melanesian territory – it was part of the Dutch East Indies but stayed with the Netherlands after the Asian part of the colony won independence. After Sukarno’s konfrontasi campaign, the Dutch had to hand it over to Indonesia. The locals were supposed to be allowed to confirm or reject Indonesian rule in a UN-supervised so-called “Act of Free Choice” in 1969. In the end, instead of the entire population, just over 1000 delegates were allowed to vote and allegedly pressured into accepting. The bulk of the population had no choice. The OPM guerrilla movement arose to fight the Indonesians and the military retaliation has been heavy-handed and counter-productive. Flying the independence Morning Star flag will lead to a jail term. It seems most Papuans want full independence but they have dim prospects of achieving it, especially since a million Indonesians have been resettled from overcrowded Java and Bali, Indonesia is desperate to hold onto the rich resources, and the rest of the world has little knowledge of the problem (even in today’s democratic Indonesia, foreign press is effectively banned here) or interest. Like Tibet, the province has been divided.

Native Papuans have experienced racism both here and in other parts of Indonesia (to their credit, many good-hearted Indonesians have protested against a particularly ugly incident against Papuans in Surabaya last year, and been influenced by the “Black Lives Matter” movement).

The history of the messy nomenclature of both the western (here called West Papua) and eastern (Papua New Guinea, independent from Australia since 1975) parts of the island is too complicated and confusing to go into here…

Anyway, it’s time to discuss the present novel, Last Wild Place.

Here we are deep in the jungles of self-publishing land. The cover is amateurishly printed so that the back cover blurb is half illegible because of the picture. There are factual inaccuracies: on the very first page the writer says that New Guinea is the world’s largest island (that is Greenland). There is no such language as Papuan (there are hundreds of languages on this island). There are innumerable typos. The author loves capitals! (Why would you capitalise words like yaks, dance, cannibals, paranoid, cyanides, international episode?) In one sentence we have

“Carmen cannon [sic] believe her eyes as she, Gus and her mother arrive at what looks like a luxury hotel in one of the Hotel’s [capitalised] land rovers [not capitalised]”)

 

There are quite a few misplaced apostrophes. Then there are examples of gauche writing:

“She tries to warn Gus that he has to stop arguing with her mother.

                ‘Gus, you’ve got to stop arguing with my mother.’”

 

The heroine Carmen (sometimes spelt Carman) always seems to be wincing and sighing.

As for the plot, it is not really thought out and sometimes a bit ridiculous – well it does have that in common with many other thrillers! (”every Army plane in west Papua is being sent to shoot down any helicopter resembling the cargo plane the soldiers reported seeing”). Carmen basically takes up a career in tourism to get revenge on her mother for childhood neglect (not just from rivalry). Her mother is stupid (wearing high heels for a jungle expedition), arrogant and blind. Among her plans to kick start tourism in this contested region are a Revue (like a kitschy Hawai’ian-style tourist show), including a “Tahitian hula” (hula is Hawai’ian) and a “Tahitian fire dance” (which is Samoan); and the said jungle expedition for a group of seniors which doesn’t go as planned. They see soldiers with AK-47s burning huts (but the soldiers don’t see them!) The first week of the tour is skipped over, and after they have been kidnapped by separatists and rescued by helicopter (despite the best efforts of the dastardly Indonesian military) we don’t find out what happened to them. Much of the story doesn’t make sense, such as the crocodile attack. At one point Carmen is more scared of remaining in “a foreign place by herself” than being “at the mercy of some helicopter pilot she does not know anything about.”

It is such a shame, because this is such an important subject which really needs to be known by the whole world, and this may well be the only West Papuan novel at the moment. What a pity the author didn’t get a friend to look over the manuscript, or better still pay a proof-reader. It could have been a worthy tale with more careful writing and production, and fleshing out of the story. As it stands, I’m afraid it’s the worst novel I’ve read so far and I can’t recommend it.

 

PATTERSON, Rosemary I., Last Wild Place: an adventure novel set in West Papua, BookSurge, 2009, ISBN 9781439256763

Book 107: Palestine (English) – Mornings in Jenin (Susan ABULHAWA)

 

So it was that eight centuries after its founding by a general of Saladin’s army in 1189 A.D., Ein Hod was cleared of its Palestinian children. Yehya tried to calculate the number of generations who had lived and died in that village and he came up with forty… Forty generations of living, now stolen. Forty generations of childbirth and funerals, weddings and dance, prayer and scraped knees. Forty generations of sin and charity, of cooking, toiling, and idling, of friendships and animosities and pacts, of rain and lovemaking. Forty generations with their imprinted memories, secrets, and scandals. All carried away by the notion of entitlement of another people, who would settle in the vacancy and proclaim it all – all that was left in the way of architecture, orchards, wells, flowers, and charm – as the heritage of Jewish foreigners arriving from Europe, Russia, the United States, and other corners of the globe.

This is a novel of bewilderment and betrayal.
In the year of the creation (or recreation) of Israel, 1948 – called here by the Palestinians the ‘year without end’ – the Abulheja family is bombed out of their home and village, and forced to live in the squalid Jenin refugee camp. One of the Israeli soldiers, Moshe, steals their baby Ismael (a name as close as you can get to ‘Israel’) for his infertile wife, renames him David, and they lovingly raise him as a Jew.
His mother goes crazy. As the hopelessness of the Palestinians’ cause drags on, Jenin becomes more permanent with the years. Youssef meets and is abused by the Jewish soldier who is his brother (now David), and his outrage leads him to join the PLO though he later leaves it, cuts himself off from his family and becomes more radical. Will he become a terrorist?
Most of the story is related through the eyes of the third child, Amal, the daughter born in Jenin. She later moves to the US where, although appreciative of the more comfortable and peaceful lifestyle there, can’t help feeling somewhat resentful of those born into a luckier world free from suffering.
Understandably, there is a lot of resentment expressed at the Palestinians’ unfair treatment. Why should they have to pay for the Germans’ sins against the Jews? Why should the latter treat the people living there so cruelly, throw them out and not even let them visit their ancestral homes?
Like in any good novel, the characters measurably change during the story. It’s a sign of hope that real people can change too, for the better.
The novel is interspersed with quite a few quotes from non-fiction sources documenting the history.
I only noticed one typo, but it was a whopper. On page 285 the azan (Muslim call to prayer: I proclaim that there is no god except Allah) is quoted in Arabic, but ‘illa’ (except) is left out which leaves an unintentionally blasphemous remainder!
Despite the roles the characters seem to be forced into by the political situation, there is still hope that they can recover their humanity and empathy. And for me both of these are what is most absent in the region at the moment and the only hope for the future. And thankfully Mornings in Jenin, which is mostly but not entirely seen from the Palestinian side, ends with a glimmer of hope for reconciliation. It is a beautifully written, powerful novel which won’t leave you as a bystander.

Abdulhawa, Susan (1970 – ), Mornings in Jenin, London, Bloomsbury, 2010, ISBN 9781408813553

Book 102: Hungary (English) – Fateless = Sorstalanság (Imre KERTÉSZ)


One man… was curious, and this made me smile a bit, as to whether I had seen the gas chambers. I said to him: “If I had, we wouldn’t be standing around talking now.” “Yes, of course,” he rejoined, but had there actually been any gas chambers, so I said, sure, there were gas chambers too, naturally, among other things; it all depends, I added, what type of person was in which camp. In Auschwitz, for instance, you could bet on it. “But in my case,” I noted, “I’ve come from Buchenwald.” “From where?” he asked, so I had to repeat it: “Buchenwald.” “So, from Buchenwald, then,” he nodded, and I said, “That’s right.” “Let’s get this straight, then,” he said in response, with a stiff, austere, yet somehow almost preachy face. “You, sir,” and I don’t know why but I was almost stunned by this very formal and, I would say, somewhat punctilious mode of address, “you have heard about the existence of gas chambers,” so I said, sure I had. “Nonetheless, sir,” he carried on with that same austerity of one who is restoring things to order and clarity, “you personally, however, did not ascertain this with your own eyes,” and I had to admit that I hadn’t. To that he merely remarked, “I see” and after giving a curt not strode away, stiffly, erectly, and as far as I could see, unless I was very much mistaken, satisfied in some manner.

As on the one hand the last survivors of the Nazi Holocaust are leaving us, and on the other hand an increasing number of countries in the world are beset by the rise of rabble-rousing populists or even neo-fascist parties (some of whom deny that the genocide even took place), it seems more urgent than ever that we listen to the horrors that happened then because of hatred – and tragically have happened several times since, as some of the stories in this project tell.
Gyuri is 15. Although he does not at first fully grasp what is happening, his father is being sent ‘away on labour service’, in fact to a concentration camp, and feels compelled to make over his lumberyard business to Sütő, a non-Jew (”completely aboveboard regarding his race”), without a receipt, hoping he will take care of it for the family.
In time, Gyuri himself won’t be spared the concentration camps. Kertész minutely describes what it feels like to be sent to camps. This is not exactly like what people necessarily assume, even those horrified by them.
There are moral dilemmas – what is the right decision, what is the right way to conduct oneself in such a horrifying situation, amidst the uncertainty (and self-delusion?) about what will happen.
This is an uncomfortable read (and not always in the way you might expect), but it’s a great work of literature and highly recommended. Kertész won the 2002 Nobel Prize for Literature.

KERTÉSZ Imre (1929 – ), Fateless, translated from Hungarian by Tim Wilkinson, London, Vintage, 2006, ISBN 9780099502524
(also translated as Fatelessness)
First published in Budapest as Sorstalanság in 1975 

Book 81: Somalia (English) – Maps (Nuruddin FARAH)

Before midnight, the old man’s leaf fell gently from the tree on the moon. It was a most gentle death. Hush. And the soft falling of the withered leaf didn’t even tease the well of Karin’s emotions, nor did it puncture the lacrymatory pockets. She didn’t cry, didn’t announce the departure of the old man’s soul to anyone until the following morning. She stayed by him, keeping his death all to herself. She lay by him in reverent silence, he dead, she alive – but you couldn’t have told the difference, so quiet was she beside him.

 

This is the first novel in the Blood in the Sun trilogy.

It is basically an in-depth study of the evolving relationship between the Somali orphan Askar and Misra, an ethnic Ethiopian lady who comes to look after him. It takes place at the time of the largely forgotten Ogaden war (1977-8) between Somalia and Ethiopia. The Ogaden Desert is inhabited by Somalis but was (and is, after the Ethiopians reconquered it with the help of their then sponsor the USSR and its allies), occupied by Ethiopia. In what looks like a continuing theme for the world’s twilight nations, or regions, “it is easier ridding yourself of a colonialist from beyond the seas than it is to oust an African one.” (for ‘African’, insert ‘Asian’ or any of the other possibilities). However, I’m not convinced that Namibia should have been listed as an exception – by the time of the setting, the German colonialists were long gone, but the future Namibia was finding it very difficult to escape from its neighbour South Africa.

As is usual in war, Misra is accused of treason. Meanwhile, Askar’s relationship with her becomes both intimate and testy. He feels that he is faced with the impossible choice of having to betray either her or Somalia. Farah explores the psychology of this complicated link.

It took a long time for the significance of the title to be revealed, but maps become a symbol of the way that ‘truth’ is not one and unchangeable, just as the country’s borders are not immutable. It is not as easy to pin down as it should be. Going back to the map, the one hanging on your wall probably has something called ‘Somalia’ (and something called ‘Ethiopia’) separated by nice confident red lines. But one country blends into another, both in space (geographically and culturally) and time (historically). Since we started drawing neat lines across the landscape, it has never been the case that everyone belonging to a certain people will always find themselves on the ‘right’ side of the border. And as for Somalia itself – all nicely coloured yellow on my map – it currently doesn’t exist as a single entity. Somaliland (the part colonised by the British rather than the Italians) is de facto independent, as is Puntland, while violence-torn Somalia proper is in fact the most tenuous part of the land.

At the time I read it I was in the mood for something with a faster and more intricate plot. But it is a very good and thought-provoking novel.

 

FARRAH, Nuruddin (Nuuradiin Faarax) (1945 – ), Maps, New York, Arcade, 2016, ISBN 978-1-62872-585-8

Book 73: Netherlands (Dutch) – Het Diner = The Dinner (Herman KOCH)

What struck you in the first place about Claire’s dish was the immense emptiness. Of course, I also well know that in the better restaurants quality is considered more important than quantity, but there are emptinesses and there are emptinesses. Here the emptiness, the part of the plate where there was no food to be found at all, was clearly put on a pedestal above all else, as a matter of principle.
It was as if the empty plate taunted you to say something about it, to go and make a song and dance about it, in the open kitchen. ‘But you don’t dare!’ said the plate, and it laughed you in the face.

[my translation]

 

This was only the second book I’ve read in Dutch (after Anne Frank’s diary).
Going by what seemed a boring title and plot, I wasn’t expecting much from this one (although perhaps the sinister looking lobster on the cover of my Dutch edition should have given me a hint). I couldn’t have been more wrong! I’m sure this will turn out to be one of the outstanding reads of this project.
Just as the label specifies, this acutely observed novel describes a dinner party – a particularly poisonous dinner party, with the cynical narrator and his despised bigwig elder brother, and their respective wives. The crosscurrents between the participants are fascinating. As the meal progresses, we learn that all of the diners and their family members have dark secrets, including one especially ugly one, and what the real purpose of the dinner is. We come to question who really is most sensible of the brothers. Normally you will tend to follow the narrator, but here you might or might not continue to do so. You come to realise that you have to deal with that trickiest (but fascinating) of narrative styles, the unreliable narrator. Koch plays with your viewpoint and sympathies. The scene, the meal, the restaurant’s workings and the interpersonal relationships are minutely – and cynically – observed.
It is a complete course in family – and restaurant – politics and psychology. You can throw in anthropology too – especially, is nature or nurture responsible for the boys’ behaviour?
Since the intrigue and the setting are so concentrated, I think there is the makings of a fantastic play here. (I found the movie disappointing, and why does everything have to be transposed to the US?)

I can totally recommend this surprising, uncomfortable, caustic novel.

 

Koch, Herman (1953 – ), Het Diner, Amsterdam, Anthos, 2009, ISBN 978 90 414 1368 0

Book 70: Syria (English) – In praise of hatred = Madih al-karahiya (Khaled KHALIFA)

By the end of that summer, hatred had taken possession of me. I was enthused by it; I felt that it was saving me. Hatred gave me the feeling of superiority I was searching for. I carefully read the pamphlets distributed at every meeting with the other girls and memorized whole sections of them, particularly the fatwas charging other sects with heresy. I became closer to my seven companions and grew to love them. We exchanged secrets and books describing the horrific agonies of the grave. My integration with them saved me from my desires for Ghada, who had in my mind become wretched; she was still far from the power and severity I possessed when asked my opinion on punishing those who showed contempt for religion’s doctrines. I astonished them by requesting to make a list of such girls at my school and seeking permission to disfigure them with acid for wearing tight shirts that clearly showed their breasts. Alya’s eyes shone as she asked me to be patient, as if she already knew the date we would do it.

 

Sadly, Syria has slipped a fair way down the list (which I’m trying to read in population order) from when I read this book, due to so many of its people being killed in the sickening civil war. But as it seems like the endgame is coming in the war, its time has finally come for a post. You might feel that it is set in today’s war-torn Syria, but it actually takes place in the 1980s, when a previous President Assad oversaw another terrifying massacre in Aleppo. Plus ça change…

This blistering novel is an interesting female perspective on radicalism. The young narrator is consumed by hatred. She hates not only others but even her own body, warring against her awakening sexuality; she despises her mother; sees her own family as hypocrites – since only one member of her family bothers to get up for the dawn prayers. She hates other Muslim groups that she sees as misguided. And she hates the secular but dictatorial government. She is imprisoned, both physically (in practice) and spiritually, and as much by herself as by others; not only by people, but also by institutions and by history. She can only see an enemy (and she is so like them!) – not the (invisible) good majority, only the bad in people and not the good. She fosters hatred as a weapon to gain power – as do so many around her.

When I was studying Middle Eastern history in the early 1980s, the Lebanese civil war was in full fight. My university tutor warned us that some day Syria would blow up into a far bigger conflagration, but since it was ostensibly stable and peaceful that seemed hard to believe at the time. Alas that he proved right.

This is not a happy read, but an insightful and tragic book, brilliantly written, and vital.

 

KHALIFA, Khaled (خالد خليفة‎) (1964 – ), In praise of hatred, translated from Arabic by Leri Price, London, Black Swan, 2013, ISBN 978-0-552-77613-4

(first published in Arabic 2008)